Surface Roughness Characterisation and Analysis of the Electron Beam Melting (EBM) Process.

Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is a metal powder bed fusion (PBF) process in which the heat source is an electron beam. Differently from other metal PBF processes, today, EBM is used for mass production. As-built EBM parts are clearly recognisable by their surface roughness, which is, in some cases, one of the major limitations of the EBM process. The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of the orientation and the slope of the EBM surfaces on the surface roughness. Additionally, the machine repeatability is studied by measuring the roughness of surfaces built at different positions on the start plate.
To these aims, a specific artefact was designed. Replicas of the artefact were produced using an Arcam A2X machine and Ti6Al4V powder. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were applied to investigate whether the surface morphology was affected by process factors. The results show significant differences between the upward and downward surfaces. The upward surfaces appear less rough than the downward ones, for which a lower standard deviation was obtained in the results. The roughness of the upward surfaces is linearly influenced by the sloping angle, while the heat distribution on the cross-section was found to be a key factor in explaining the roughness of the downward surfaces.

Reviewing the Mechanistic Evidence Assessors E-Synthesis and EBM+: A Case Study of Amoxicillin and Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS).

Basic science has delivered unprecedented insights into intricate relationships on the smallest scales within well-controlled environments. Addressing pressing societal decision problems requires an understanding of systems on larger scales in real-world situations.To assess how well the evidence assessors E-Synthesis and EBM+ assess basic science findings to support medical decision making.We demonstrate the workings of E-Synthesis and B
M+ on a case study: the suspected causal connection between the widely-used drug amoxicillin (AMX) and the putative adverse drug reaction: Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS).We determine an increase in the probability that AMX can cause DRESS within the E-Synthesis approach and using the EBM+ standards assess the basic science findings as supporting the existence of a mechanism linking AMX and DRESS.
While progress is made towards developing methodologies which allow the incorporation of basic science research in the decision-making process for pressing societal questions, there is still considerable need for further developments. A continued dialogue between basic science researchers and methodologists, philosophers and statisticians seems to offer the best prospects for developing and evaluating continuously evolving methodologies.

The Effect of EBM Process Parameters on Porosity and Microstructure of Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-1Cr-1Fe Alloy.

In this article, the authors discuss the results of studies into the processing of Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-1Cr-1Fe near-β titanium alloy (Ti-55511) by electron beam melting (EBM), an additive manufacturing technique. Due to its high flexibility in shaping mechanical properties, Ti-55511 alloy is commonly used in aircraft components such as landing gear or airframes. In this study, Ti-55511 powder was used and its properties were described as regards chemical composition and particle size distribution in order to assess its suitability for EBM processing and repeatability of results. 20 sets of processing parameters were tested in the energy input range between 10 J/mm3 and 50 J/mm3 (cathode current, 4.5 mA-19.5 mA; scanning speed, 1080 mm/s-23400 mm/s).
 Surface Roughness Characterisation and Analysis of the Electron Beam Melting (EBM) Process.
Four types of top surfaces were obtained, namely, flat, orange peel, with single pores, and with swelling. Best results were obtained for the energy of 30 J/mm3: flat top surface and relative density in excess of 99.9%. Analysis of chemical composition showed that aluminum loss was below the specification minimum for the analyzed parameter sets. Scanning speed most significantly affected aluminum content: the lower the scanning speed, the higher the aluminum loss.
Analysis of microstructures showed the dependence of lamellar α-phase volume fraction on the process parameters used. For low scanning speed, the determined α-phase volume accounted for about 78%. Higher scanning speed resulted in a decrease of the α-phase content to 61%. The dimensions of the lamellas and the amount of the α-phase strongly effected hardness results (360 HV to 430 HV).

EBM II: How to perform a literature search.

The present article is a second part related to evidence based medicine (EBM) in a series of five by the European society for paediatric urology (ESPU) research committee. It will present the different databases/search engines available to clinicians and researchers and describe strategies to focus the search to one’s particular needs. Indeed, databases/search engines used and search strategy should vary according to the goal of the research.
If the aim is to address a clinical problem, the search should allow to identify a small number of most pertinent articles (high specificity); if the search is for research purposes, instead, it should ensure no meaningful articles are overlooked (high sensitivity).

Superior Wear Resistance in EBM-Processed TC4 Alloy Compared with SLM and Forged Samples.

The wear properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy have drawn great attention in both aerospace and biomedical fields. The present study examines the wear properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy as prepared by selective laser melting (SLM), electron beam melting (EBM) and conventional forging processes. The SLM and EBM samples show better wear resistance than the forged sample, which correlates to their higher hardness values and weak delamination tendencies.

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The EBM sample shows a lower wear rate than the SLM sample because of the formation of multiple horizontal cracks in the SLM sample, which results in heavier delamination. The results suggest that additive manufacturing processes offer significantly wear-resistant Ti-6Al-4V specimens in comparison to their counterparts produced by forging.